History

tiptur-history-2

ನಮ್ಮೆಲ್ಲ ಓದುಗರಿಗೆ ದೀಪಾವಳಿ ಹಬ್ಬದ ಶುಭಾಶಯಗಳು

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Struggle for Responsible Government

After 1937, by which time the neighbouring British-governed provinces had made considerable progress achieving democratic rights, the movement for constitutional reforms and establishment of responsible government in the State gained fresh momentum. Early in 1938, a separate organization called the Mysore Congress was formed to work for the attainment of full responsible government under the aegis of the Maharaja. A meeting of the All Mysore Congress Committee was help at Tumkur on the third November 1938, under the presidentship of Sri T. Siddalingaiah, to review the several events such as the Vidurashwatha tragedy, which had taken place earlier on 25th April 1938, and resolved to intensify the stuggle for responsible government in the State. In August 1942, when the national leaders were arrested by the British Government, there was a spontaneous and vehement reaction of the people in the district as in other parts of the State. In June 1943, a special session of the Mysore Congress was help at Tumkur, which urged the removal of repressive orders and reiterated the demand for establishment of representative form of government. This movement gradually gained strength and just after the attainment of Independence, it naturally received further momentum. The demand for establishing responsible government in the State was championed in the district by leaders like K. Rangaingar, T. subramanya, B. C. Nanjundaiya, M. V. Rama Rao, B. Hutche Gowda, K. Henjarappa, R. Channigaramaiya, T. N. Kepahonnaiya, C. R. Basappa and others who belonged to the district.

A vigorous satyagraha was launched on the 1st September 1947 and this upsurge continued all over the State for about a month. Thousands braved the repressive measures and courted arrest. There was a lathi-charge and a firing at Tumkur on the 14th September 1947, in which three youths named Gorur Ramachandra, Nanjundappa and Gangappa were killed. The movement ended shortly next month after an agreement was reached between the Maharaja’s Government and the Mysore Congress. On the 24th October 1947, Sri K. C. Reddy, who was then the president of the Mysore Congress, formed a popular Government with eight other ministers, three of whom were independents. As the constitution of India was in the offing, the Mysore Constituent Assembly, which was set up under the agreement, got itself converted into a legislative body. With the promulgation of the Indian Constitution in 1950, Mysore became a Part ‘B’ State with the Maharaja as the Rajpramukh. With the reorganization of States in 1956, a new MysoreState was formed with the other Kannada-speaking areas and a Governor was appointed as the constitutional head of the State.

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Gangas

Sripurusha Ganga

Rashtrakutas

Indraraja Rashtrakuta

Chalukyas of Kalyana

Nolambas

Mahendra Nolamba

Cholas

Hoysalas

Narasimaha II Hoyala

Narasimha III Hoysala

Ramanatha Hoysalal

Ballala III

Kakatiya record

Immigration of families

Harihar II

Succession struggle

Saluva Narasimha

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka

Minor Ruling Families

Nidugal Chiefs

Holvanahalli Chiefs

Maddagiri Chiefs

Hagaivadi chiefs

Hebbu Zamindari

Bijapur rule

Mughals and Marathas

Wodeyars of Mysore

Devaraja Wodeyar’s inscriptions

Politica awakening

Struggle for Responsible Government

 

 


 

shimoga History          Mysore History          Hassan History 

 


 

Politica awakening

In 1881, soon after the Rendition of the State, a beginning was made to provide a forum for expression of public opinion by prominent citizens of the State by establishing a Representative Assemble which was the first of its kind in the country. The momentous events that were taking place in what was British India, after the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885, were exercising considerable influence on the people of the princely State of Mysore also. In 1907, a Legislative Council was also ushered in with a view to associating with the Government non-official gentlemen qualified by practical experience and knowledge of local conditions and requirements in assisting the Government in making laws and regulations. Owing to the pressure from the paramount power, the Dewans were following a very cautious policy and many a time resorted to suppressive measures in order to curb the aspirations of the people. Nevertheless, several public-spirited persons, like Sri M. Venkatakrishnaiah, made pioneering efforts through the press, platform and the Assembly and the Council in educating the people about their rights and for development of democratic institutions in the State. They tried also, as for as possible, to make the Dewans’ regimes responsive to the wished of the people.

In 1918, the Prajamitra mandali led by Sri H. Channaiah and others, which had been formed to work for the advancement of the backward communities, urged reformation of the Representative Assemble and the Council and local self-government institutions, so as to make them democratic. This body was running its own journals to propagate it views. Later, a new local party called the Praja Paksha led by Sri D. S. Mallappa of Tiptur also came into being. From 1921, Congress Committees were also being also set up in several of the places in the State and one of the earliest such committees the Karnataka Provincial Congress Committee and a session of the National Congress was held at Belaum in 1924 under the presidentship of Mahatma Gandhi, the people of Mysore came closer to the nationalist movement. The Prajamitra Mandali and the Praja Paksha later merged to form the Praja samyukta Paksha and this new organization was also later merged in the State Congress.

As early as 1919 and 1921, demands had been voiced for the establishment of a responsible government in the State, and in the elections held to the Assembly and the Council in 1927, a new generation of leaders emerged, who demanded full-fledged democratization of these bodies. Raiya Sanghas were also started for the betterment of the lot of agriculturists. A committee appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. M. Visvesvaray recommended that a party-system of government based on the British model might be introduced in the State, while retaining the dewan as the Chief Minister for some years. However, the reforms suggested by this committee were not accepted and steps were taken to place severe restrictions on civil liberties.

Several aspects of the nationalist constructive programme such as Khadi, revival of rural industries, encouragement of swadeshi articles and Harijan uplift had been adopted in MysoreState. A number of person from Tumkur and other districts had gone to other parts of Karnataka to participate in political struggles there. Tumkur had also one of the earliest branches of the Hindustani Seva Dal which trained up volunteers for the nationalistic work. In the course of his tour for Harijan uplift work, Gandhiji visited Tumkur on the 4th January 1934 and addressed a public meeting and appealed for full co-operation in implementing the constructive programme. He was presented with a purse of Rs. 1,000 and with an address at Tumkur and with another purse at Kyatsandra. The visit thrilled the people of Tumkur and encouraged them to put forth better efforts in the following years for strengthening the nationalist movement. With a view to suppressing the rising tempo of enthusiasm of the people for the national struggle, the Independence Day celebrations planned at Tumkur in January 1937 were banned by the Maharaja’s Government and severe restrictions were enforced under the Mysore Police Regulation. Lawyers and other influential men of the district and students took an active part at Tumkur, Tiptur, Madhugiri and other centre to further the national cause.

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Gangas

Sripurusha Ganga

Rashtrakutas

Indraraja Rashtrakuta

Chalukyas of Kalyana

Nolambas

Mahendra Nolamba

Cholas

Hoysalas

Narasimaha II Hoyala

Narasimha III Hoysala

Ramanatha Hoysalal

Ballala III

Kakatiya record

Immigration of families

Harihar II

Succession struggle

Saluva Narasimha

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka

Minor Ruling Families

Nidugal Chiefs

Holvanahalli Chiefs

Maddagiri Chiefs

Hagaivadi chiefs

Hebbu Zamindari

Bijapur rule

Mughals and Marathas

Wodeyars of Mysore

Devaraja Wodeyar’s inscriptions

Politica awakening

Struggle for Responsible Government

 

 


 

shimoga History          Mysore History          Hassan History 

 


 

Devaraja Wodeyar’s inscriptions

Of the inscriptions of the Mysore Wodeyars in this district, the earliest is dated 1662 and refers to the reign of Devaraja Wodeyar. The inscription, numbered Kg 37, which records the establishment of an agrahara at Halagere, traces the origin of the Mysore dynasty to some princes of the Yadu race who came to the Karnataka country to visit their family god at Yadugiri, i.e., Melkote, and surprised at the beauty of the country, took up their abode in the city called Mahisha (i.e., modern Mysore). Another inscription, numbered Kg 46, informs us of a grant made by the same king in 1664 as a thanks-offering for his victory against Bidanur. This inscription, exceptionally, commences with an apparent acknowledgment of Vijayanagara supremacy, but Srirangaraya, its king, was now a fugitive at the Bidanur court. Shivappa Nayaka of Bidanur had installed the refugee king at Sakrepatna and Belur and was preparing to attack Srirangapattana claiming that he was restoring the authority of the Vijayanagara king. Perhaps, Devaraja was a little apprehensive as to the course of events and acknowledges Vijayanagara in this solitary instance, as a matter of policy.

There are four or five inscriptions belonging to Chikka Devaraja, beginning with Kg 7 dated 1674; Tm 45, which also belongs to his reign, mentions the previous name of Chikka-Devarayadurga or the present Devarayanadurga, which was Jadakanadurga belonging to Anebiddasari. The inscription of Krishnaraja Wodeyar I begin with Tm 46 Dated 1719. This record states that Dasarajayya, one of his Dalavayis, set up an image of god Lakshminarasimha in Suragiridurga, i.e., Nijaga, situated to the north o Kakudgiri of Shivaganga. Inscriptions of the time of Haidar Ali begin with Si 96 dated 1777 in which the Chikka-Seebi village was granted to the temple at Seebi in consideration of its having been cleared of the jungle that had overgrown the site and after ascertaining that it was formerly a property of the temple. Mi 18 and 19, both dated 1782, record the erection of certain fortifications on the Maddagiridurga. The remaining grants of the Mysore Rajas are quite modern. Of these, Tm 41 and 42, both dated in 1858, record the repairs of the tower of the Narasimha temple at Devaraynadurga (originally erected by Chikka-Devaraja Wodeyar), carried out by Mummadi krishnaraja Woderyar’s queen Muddu-Krishnamamaba, and also the repairs of the vimana and the images of the ten incarnations of Vishnu carried out under orders of krishnaraja Wodeyar himself. The rest of the history of the district runs parallel to that of the entire erstwhile State of Mysore. Administratively, there were several changes in the set-up of this district.

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Gangas

Sripurusha Ganga

Rashtrakutas

Indraraja Rashtrakuta

Chalukyas of Kalyana

Nolambas

Mahendra Nolamba

Cholas

Hoysalas

Narasimaha II Hoyala

Narasimha III Hoysala

Ramanatha Hoysalal

Ballala III

Kakatiya record

Immigration of families

Harihar II

Succession struggle

Saluva Narasimha

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka

Minor Ruling Families

Nidugal Chiefs

Holvanahalli Chiefs

Maddagiri Chiefs

Hagaivadi chiefs

Hebbu Zamindari

Bijapur rule

Mughals and Marathas

Wodeyars of Mysore

Devaraja Wodeyar’s inscriptions

Politica awakening

Struggle for Responsible Government

 

 


 

shimoga History          Mysore History          Hassan History 

 


 

Wodeyars of Mysore

The area comprising this district, it may be said, became a part of the princely State of Mysore roughly in four stages. The earliest acquisition in this district was that of Hebbur in the Tumkur taluk by Kanthirava Narasaraja wodeyar I (1638-1659) in April 1650 from Immadi Kempe Gowda. This he did by inflicting a severe defeat on the latter’s son, Chikka Kempe Gowda ot Mummadi Kempe gowda, in an action in the Yelahanka-nad and exacting his submission. From this date onwards, Mysore began to extend its territories gradually in the northern direction. We are told that by 1673, i.e., the last year of Devaraja Wodeyar’s (1659-1673) reign, the kingdom of Mysore, now powerful and practically independent, had been extended “as far as Hassan and Sakrepatna in the west, Salem in the east, Chiknayakanahalli in the north, and Erode and Dharapuram in the south”14. This means that, by the end of Devaraja Wodeyar’s reign, a considerable portion of the Tumkur district had formed part of the Mysore territories. The third stage consists of the conquests of Chikka Devaaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704). There are several inscriptions found in this as well as surrounding districts which give the particulars of Chikka-Devaraja’s wars. One of the earliest of these inscriptions dated 1675,15 describes him as sitting on the throne of the Karnataka country like the great Indra, and enumerating his conquests in all directions, it states that in the north, he defeated Ranadulla Khan (the Bijapur general) and captured Ketasamudra, Kandikere, Handalakere, Gulur, Tumkur and Honnavalli, all in the tumkur district.

Further, defeating Narasa Nayaka, also called Mushtika (fighter with the fist), in a battle Chikka-Devaraja is said to have captured Jadakanadurga (now called Devarayanadurga in tumkur district) and changed its name to Chikka-Devarayadurga. Another record belonging to 167916 also gives these particulars and adds that he defeated akso Timmappa Gowda and Ramappa Gowda and took Maddagiri, Midigeshi, Bijjavara and Channarayanaduraga, all in the Tumkur District. As the capture of these places is not mentioned in the inscription dated 1675, but is referred to in the one dated 1679, it follows that these places were places were taken between 1675 and 1679. The acquisition of this chain of impregnable hill-forts largely widened the sphere of influence of Mysore in the north. In view of these conquests and addition of a considerable territory to the kingdom, the view of Mark Wilks 17 that the conquests of Chikka-Devaraja, “present little interest or demand no particular explanation” is obviously untenable. By the end of his reign, thus, large parts of the Tumkur district formed part of Mysore. Whatever had remained outside, finally fell to it during the time of Haridar Ali on his conquest of Sira in 1761 and annexation of Hagalvadi in 1776.

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Gangas

Sripurusha Ganga

Rashtrakutas

Indraraja Rashtrakuta

Chalukyas of Kalyana

Nolambas

Mahendra Nolamba

Cholas

Hoysalas

Narasimaha II Hoyala

Narasimha III Hoysala

Ramanatha Hoysalal

Ballala III

Kakatiya record

Immigration of families

Harihar II

Succession struggle

Saluva Narasimha

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka

Minor Ruling Families

Nidugal Chiefs

Holvanahalli Chiefs

Maddagiri Chiefs

Hagaivadi chiefs

Hebbu Zamindari

Bijapur rule

Mughals and Marathas

Wodeyars of Mysore

Devaraja Wodeyar’s inscriptions

Politica awakening

Struggle for Responsible Government

 

 


 

shimoga History          Mysore History          Hassan History 

 


 

Mughals and Marathas

The Mughals succeeded the Adil Shahis of Bijapur. On the capture of Golkonda and Bijapur by Aurangzeb in 1686 and on the conquest of their territories by the Mughal army, Sira was made the capital of a new province, consisting of the sevn paraganas of basavapattana, Budihal, Sira, Penukondas, Doddaballapur, Hoskote and Kolar and placed under one Khasim Khan as Subedar or Foujdar. This officer, it is said, applied himself with energy and success to the task of improving the area. He was killed in 1698 at Dodderi and was succeeded by the distinguished general, Zulfikar Khan. Sheik Farid, one of the rulers, built a big mosque at Sira in 1696. Another governor named Rustam Jung is said to have built the fort and petta and obtained the title of Bahadur and the name Kaifiat Khan. In 1720, the Subedar was one Nawab Dusa Kuli Khan. In 1742, Nawab Dilawar Saheb was the subedar and he apparently put down certain disturbances. In 1757, Sira was taken by the Marathas and restored two years after on the conclusion of peace with Mysore. In 1761, it was taken by Haidar Ali, in alliance with Basalat Jung, who had conferred upon him the title of ‘Nawab of sira’. In 1766, it fell again into the hands of the Marathas owing to defection of Haidar’s brother-in- law and in 1774 was re-conquered by Tipu. The Marathas once more occupied it for a short time in 1791 in the course of their march to join the army of Lord Cornwallis. Of this transitory rule of the Marathas also there are two inscriptions in the district. Both of them are in Marathi and dated about 1767. They were found at Channarayanaduraga which was fortified by them. The following is a professed list of the Subedars of Sira under the Mughal Government.

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Gangas

Sripurusha Ganga

Rashtrakutas

Indraraja Rashtrakuta

Chalukyas of Kalyana

Nolambas

Mahendra Nolamba

Cholas

Hoysalas

Narasimaha II Hoyala

Narasimha III Hoysala

Ramanatha Hoysalal

Ballala III

Kakatiya record

Immigration of families

Harihar II

Succession struggle

Saluva Narasimha

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka

Minor Ruling Families

Nidugal Chiefs

Holvanahalli Chiefs

Maddagiri Chiefs

Hagaivadi chiefs

Hebbu Zamindari

Bijapur rule

Mughals and Marathas

Wodeyars of Mysore

Devaraja Wodeyar’s inscriptions

Politica awakening

Struggle for Responsible Government

 

 


 

shimoga History          Mysore History          Hassan History 

 


 

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